What is Research Design in a PhD Dissertation?

What is a Research Design? In your dissertation, research design can be defined as a general plan for how you will respond to the research question. It is a framework for deciding on specific data …

Research Design

What is a Research Design?

In your dissertation, research design can be defined as a general plan for how you will respond to the research question. It is a framework for deciding on specific data collecting and analysis methods. To choose a research design, you must first decide on the following:

  • Your general objectives and strategy.
  • The study design you will employ.
  • Your sampling methodology or subject eligibility requirements.
  • Your strategies for gathering data.
  • The methods you will employ to obtain information.
  • Your ways for analysing data.

A well-thought-out research design ensures that your procedures are appropriate for your research goals and employ the appropriate type of analysis for your data.

Types of Research Design

Exploratory and conclusive research designs are the two sorts of research designs. As the name implies, exploratory research tries to investigate specific facets of a research topic. The goal of exploratory research is not to provide definitive solutions to research problems. According to new facts gathered during the research process, the researcher may even change the study’s direction to some amount, although not fundamentally. On the other hand, Conclusive research produces results that can also be used to make decisions.

However, well-designed research usually produces less bias in data and promotes confidence in the integrity of the information gathered. In experimental research, a design that yields the smallest margin of error is often regarded as the desirable outcome. The following are the essential elements:

  1. Statement of intent that is accurate.
  2. Use techniques in gathering and evaluating data.
  3. The approach in analysing the obtained data.
  4. The methodology used in research.
  5. Potential research stumbling blocks.
  6. The research study’s environment.
  7. Timeline
  8. Analytical measurement.

If you adopt the correct research design, your study will be more successful. Successful research designs produce reliable and unbiased information. You will need to construct a survey that satisfies all the design’s primary requirements. You can even buy dissertation online completely if you cannot design your research independently.

Importance of Research Design

The credibility of the results obtained is also influenced by the research design. As a result, it provides a strong basis for the rest of the research in a PhD dissertation. It is necessary because it allows numerous research design processes to run smoothly. However, this maximises the research’s effectiveness by offering the most information with the least amount of work, money and time.

Factors Contributing to the Importance of Study Design

The following factors contribute to the importance of study design in research methodology:

  • It could lead to the type of study you want, with a useful conclusion.
  • Decreases inaccuracy.
  • It enables you to achieve maximum efficiency and dependability.
  • Cut down on the time you waste.
  • Reduce any research problem’s uncertainty, perplexity, and practical haphazardness.
  • It is quite helpful in gathering research materials and testing hypotheses.
  • It is a road map for getting research on the proper track.
  • Eliminate bias and marginal errors.
  • It gives you an estimate of the resources you will need in terms of money, effort, time, and labour.
  • Smooth and efficient sailing (defines boundaries and aids in avoiding blind searches) maximises the consistency of outcomes.
  • Gives the project a firm foundation.
  • Avoids erroneous assumptions and pointless practice.
  • Allows for the detection of defects and shortcomings (anticipates problems).
  • Learned from other people’s critical comments and evaluations to incorporate.
  • Forming a research design aids the researcher in making the best judgments possible at each stage of the investigation.
  • It aids in the identification of the study’s key and minor objectives.

What are the Types of Research Design?

  • Descriptive research design:

A descriptive design researcher is only concerned with explaining the circumstance or case under investigation. It is a theory-based design process that involves collecting, interpreting and presenting data. This allows a researcher to describe why and how they undertake research. Others will be able to understand the research’s requirements according to the descriptive design. If the problem statement is ambiguous, you can conduct exploratory research.

  • Experimental research design:

An experimental study establishes a link between a situation’s cause and effect. It is a simple design that looks at the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable. For example, one could look at the impact of an independent variable like costing on a dependent variable or customer satisfaction or brand recognition. It is a very practical research design because it contributes to solving a problem.

The independent variables are also changed to track the effect on the dependent variable. We can use it to study human behaviour by comparing two groups in the social sciences. Researchers may have people change their actions and study how those around them react to understand social psychology better.

  • Correlational research design:

Correlational research is a non-experimental research design that aids researchers in determining a link between two closely related variables. This type of study necessitates the participation of two distinct groups. No assumptions are made when examining a relationship between two variables, and statistical analytic techniques are used to calculate the relationship.

The correlation between two variables is determined by a correlation coefficient, which is between -1 and +1. A positive association between the variables is shown by a correlation coefficient of +1, whereas a negative relationship is indicated by a correlation coefficient of -1.

  • Diagnostic research design:

The goal of the research design is to determine the underlying cause of a specific educational topic or occurrence. This strategy enables one to understand better the causes that lead to problematic situations.

This design divides the research into three sections:

  • The beginning of the problem.
  • Diagnosis of the problem.
  • A solution to the problem.


Firstly, all the components of a good research design work together logically. Secondly, align the theoretical and conceptual framework with the research objectives and goals. Similarly, the data collection approach must be compatible with the research objectives, conceptual and theoretical framework, and data analysis process. A good research design in a PhD dissertation aids the researcher in completing the study’s objectives promptly and obtaining the best solution to the research difficulties.

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