Tulsi’s botanical name is Ocimum sanctum. Tulsi is a domestic plant that is widely grown in India. Various names are also known in different places, such as Holy Basil in English, Thulasi in Tamil, Tulasi in Punjabi, Imli in Urdu, and so on. The people revere Tulsi. Tulsi is well-known for its medicinal properties, antimicrobial and antiviral properties, and its ability to purify the air. Tulsi-derived medications are used to treat stress, fever, inflammation, and stamina. It is an annual shrub that grows to a height of 2 to 4 feet. The flowers are small and purple. It is found throughout India, but it is most common in MP.
Soil for Tulsi Plantation
It is grown in a wide variety of soils. Cultivating highly saline, alkaline, or waterlogged conditions is not beneficial to yield. It produces the best outcomes when grown in well-drained soil with plenty of organic matter. It grows best in soil with a pH range of 5.5-7. In addition, use highly advanced farming machines like Eicher 242 and others to make soil perfect for tulsi plantations.
Tulsi Krishna (Ocimum sanctum): It is found in almost every region of India. Moreover, its leaves are purple in color. It’s high in vitamins A, K, and beta-carotene. It also contains beneficial amounts of magnesium, calcium, iron, potassium, and vitamin C.
Drudriha Tulsi is primarily found in Bengal, Nepal, Chatgaon, and Maharashtra. It provides relief from throat dryness. In addition, it relieves hand and foot swelling as well as rheumatism.
Tulsi/Rama Tulsi (Ocimum Canum): It can be found in China, Brazil, Eastern Nepal, Bengal, Bihar, Chatgaon, and the southern states of India. The stems are purple, and the leaves are green and highly aromatic. It has many medicinal properties, including adaptogenic, antifungal, antibacterial, and immune-boosting properties. It thrives in warm climates.
Babi Tulsi: The variety is found from Punjab to Trivandrum, as well as in Bengal and Bihar. The plant can grow up to a height of 1-2 feet. The leaves are oval and pointed, measuring 1-2 inches long. The flavor of the leaves is similar to cloves and is used to flavor vegetables.
Tukashmiya Tulsi: The variety is native to western India and Persia. It is used to treat throat problems, acid reflux, and leprosy.
Tulsi, Amrita: It can be found all over India. It has dark purple leaves and grows in a dense bush. It is used to treat cancer, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and dementia.
Vana Tulsi (Ocimum Gratissimum): The type is available in India’s Himalayas and plains. The plant’s height is greater than that of other varieties. It has health benefits such as stress relief, immune system stimulation, and improved resistance to stomach ulcers. The leaves emit a spicy and complex fragrance that is similar to clove.
Kapoor Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum): This plant is primarily grown in the United States, but it has been produced in India since ancient times. It grows well in temperate climates and is less challenging to cultivate. Tea is made from dried leaves.
Tulsi plantation necessitates well-drained soil. To fine-tilt, the earth, plow and harrow it several times, then thoroughly mix in FYM. Finally, Tulsi is transplanted on a good seedbed. Moreover, always use technological farming equipment like Eicher 380 and others to prepare the land.
In the third week of February, prepare nursery beds. Prepare seedbeds that are 4.5 x 1.0 x 0.2m in size. They depend on the plant’s growth habits. We should plant seeds at a 60 cm by 60 cm spacing. Seeds are planted at a depth of 2cm. Then, 6-7 weeks after sowing, the crop is transplanted into the field.
NURSERY MANAGEMENT AND TRANSPLANTING
For a good yield, add 15 tonnes of FYM to the soil before sowing for a good result. Sow Tulsi seeds in well-prepared beds with plenty of space. Seeds are sown on beds eight weeks before the monsoon. We can plant seeds at a depth of 2cm. Following sowing, a thin layer of FYM and soil is applied to the seeds. Sprinkler hoses are used for irrigation.
Application of a 2% urea solution 15-20 days before transplanting aids in producing healthy seedlings for transplantation. Transplanting occurs in the middle of April when seedlings are 6 weeks old and have 4-5 leaves. Water seedling beds 24 hours before transplanting. It ensures that seedlings can be easily uprooted and remain turgid during transplanting.
Weeding and hoeing are the necessary operations to keep the field weed-free. If weeds are not controlled, we will hamper crop growth. Therefore, the first weeding is done one month after planting, followed by the second four weeks later. After two months of planting, only one hoeing is required.
- Leaf rollers: Spray with 300ml Quinalphos in 150 ltr water
- Tulsi lacewing: Spray with Azadirachtin 10,000 ppm
- Powdery Mildew: Spray with mancozeb@4gm/ltr of water
- Seedling blight: Apply managed phytosanitary method
- Root rot: Drenching the nursery beds with Bavistin @1%
Apply three irrigations per month during the summer and none during the rainy season. In one year, we should perform 12-15 irrigations. The first irrigation should be given after transplanting, followed by the second during seedling. These two irrigations must be given, and then the rest of the irrigations are done depending on the season.
Plants begin to yield 3 months after transplantation. Harvesting occurs during the peak of the blooming period. Cutting should be done when the plant is at least 15cm above the ground. The leaves are used fresh or sun-dried for later use.
After harvesting, the leaves are dried. The basil oil is then obtained through steam distillation. Finally, it is packed in airtight bags for transportation. Store the leaves in a dry place. Following the processing of the herb, several products such as Panch Tulsi oil, Tulsi ginger, Tulsi powder, Tulsi tea, and Tulsi capsules are produced.
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