It is the most well-known medicinal plant, and it is used in many Ayurvedic drugs in India. It is a semi-aquatic plant that is grown in damp and marshy areas. Moreover, it is found in the Netherlands, North America, the majority of European countries, Central Asia, India, and Burma. In India, we can find it in Manipur, the Himalayas, the Naga hills, and on the edges of lakes and streams. The sword-shaped leaves are yellowish-green in color. The plant is large, standing 2m tall. Flowers have a cylindrical shape and a greenish-brown color. The plant’s rhizomes treat various ailments, including sedative, stomachic, aromatic, insecticidal, anti-inflammatory, aphrodisiac, antipyretic, insecticidal, carminative, and many others.
Soil for Sweet Flag Farming
It results best when grown on river banks in sandy, clayey, or alluvial soil. It necessitates a pH range of 5 to 7. Along with the soil choice, you have to prepare it with advanced machines like Mahindra Arjun 555 and others.
Acorus calamus is a species native to Eurasia and eastern North America. This variety’s leaves are 5 feet long and have an elliptical spadix that is 4 inches long. The species is evergreen and has underground rhizomes that spread slowly.
Acorus calamus Variegatus: This variety’s leaves are cream and yellow.
Acorus Gramineus Argenteostriatus is a Japanese native. This variety’s leaves are 18 inches long, and the flowers are about 3 inches long. It grows slowly and has clumps that are 2 feet wide.
Acorus Gramineus is a species found in the Pacific Northwest. It is a perennial plant.
Acorus gramineus Golden Pheasant: This variety’s foliage is golden to chartreuse in color and stands 12-14 inches tall.
Acorus-gramineus Minimus Aureus: This variety’s foliage has a fine texture of 4 inches tall.
Acorus gramineus Ogon: This variety’s variegated leaves are golden and green, and it grows 10-12 inches tall.
Acorus gramineus Variegatus has white and green variegated leaves and grows 8-12 inches tall.
Yodo-No-Yuki Acorus Gramineus: This variety’s foliage is olive-green with a yellowish edge. The foliage can reach a height of 12 inches.
Acorus gramineus Hakuro-Nishiki: This variety has yellowish-green foliage.
Waterlogged soil is required for sweet flag plantation. The first fields are thoroughly watered with a mixture of FYM (Farm Yard Manure) and green leaf manure to achieve fine tilth. The soil is then plowed two to three times. We should prepare the land before the arrival of the monsoon. The best time to plant the crop is between March and April. Moreover, use highly advanced machines like Mahindra Arjun 605 and others for preparation.
We should do planting in July and August, but the best time is the second fortnight of June. Plants should be spaced at 30 x 30cm intervals. Rhizomes are planted at a depth of 4cm. Sowing sprouted rhizomes or seeds directly on the bed.
Rhizomes are the primary means of propagation. The rhizomes are first cut into smaller pieces before being planted with sprouted rhizomes. Use a seed rate of 44400 per acre when growing.
When seeds are used for propagation, they are sown in a greenhouse. Fill a tray halfway with organic soil, then firmly press the seeds into the ground. Keep the soil moist till germination. Germination takes approximately 2 weeks.
Nursery Management And Transplanting
Wet the soil before planting. Sow Sweet flag seeds in convenient lengths on wet beds. Cover the bed with a damp cloth after sowing to keep moisture in the ground.
This crop does not require transplanting because the seeds or rhizomes are sown directly in the main field. Therefore, we should not press the rhizome or seeds too hard before planting them in the soil. To sow seeds, a gentle pressing should be performed.
When the seedlings reach a certain height, we should apply a 5cm water standing, and when the plant comes to a certain height, we should use a 10cm water standing.
Weeding should be done once a month for the first 4-5 months to keep the field weed-free.
Slug damage: This is caused by a slug to the plant’s leaves. They eat plant leaves that are still green. Slugs are exterminated by using metaldehyde or iron phosphate.
Lepidocephalus and Pseudococcus cause mealy bugs. The leaves begin to yellow and wither. Methyl parathion@10ml or Quinalphos@20ml in 10L of water is applied to the plant’s roots and shoots.
Leaf spot: Fungal discolored spots appear on the plant’s leaves.
The use of Captan@10g and Chlorpyrifos@20ml/10L should aid in the control of leaf spots.
We should avoid irrigation during the rainy season. Instead, irrigation should be applied every 2-3 days during the dry season. Initially, the water standing will be up to 5cm, and then it will be increased to 10cm.
Plants begin to yield 6-8 months after sowing. Harvesting occurs when the lower leaves dry and turn yellow, indicating maturity. We should partially dry the field before harvesting to make digging easier.
Cleaning takes place after harvesting. Rhizomes are cleaned and cut into 5-7.5 cm pieces after cleaning. Then, you should air-dry, beat, and rub rhizomes. The rubbing is repeated 2-3 times. Packing for transportation is completed after rubbing. Processing produces valuable products such as extract, oil, powder, and so on.